Customizing Materials Management Processes in SAP ERP (2nd Edition)

Customizing Materials Management Processes in SAP ERP (2nd Edition)

2012
978-1-59229-415-2
548

Product Details

• Connect your business process needs with Materials Management in SAP
• Learn MM configuration steps and identify potential areas for customization
• Explore case studies, real-world examples, and best practices
• 2nd Edition, Updated and Expanded!

 
Are you tired of being constantly bogged down by overly technical information? This book provides exactly what functional consultants are looking for: information on how to connect Materials Management (MM) in SAP with industry best-business processes and practices. Get the big picture you need!

MM: When, Why, and How
Understand when and why to use each MM functionality to suit your specific business processes, and then learn how to accomplish the specific task with process steps.

Configure and Customize
Learn the basics of how to set up organizational structures and other MM elements, enhance master data, and then tweak the system based on different business requirements.

Detailed Diagrams and Screenshots
Visualize MM organizational structures and processes with practical diagrams, then understand how to configure and customize the system with the help of screenshots.

Business Scenarios
Benefit from detailed examples to understand how you best use MM to support specific business processes.

Updated Edition
Find new information on subcontract procurement, outline agreements, materials  requirements planning (MRP), new enhancements in MM, and more, all updated for enhancement pack 5.

Highlights

• Organizational structure
• Master data
• Inventory valuation
• MRP
• Procurement
• Invoices for purchase orders
• Enhancements
• Classification
• Batch management
• Development objects
• G/L account postings
• Variant configuration

The Author

Akash Agrawal has over 15 years of experience in SAP ERP and SCM, has worked extensively on support projects, and has managed various large global SAP projects in both the US and Europe. He’s served as a functional consultant, delivery architect, and lead consultant, as well as guest faculty at some of the world’s premier business schools.

Table of Contents

  • ... Acknowledgments ... 19
  • ... Preface ... 21
  • 1 ... Introduction ... 25
  • 1.1 ... Overview of SAP ERP ... 25
  • 1.2 ... Overview of Materials Management ... 29
  • 1.3 ... SAP System Environment: Development, Quality, and Production Clients ... 30
  • 1.3.1 ... Client Descriptions ... 33
  • 1.3.2 ... Transport Requests ... 34
  • 1.4 ... SAP Enhancement Packages ... 36
  • 1.5 ... SAP Add-Ons and SAP Preconfigured Systems ... 38
  • 1.5.1 ... SAP Add-Ons ... 38
  • 1.5.2 ... SAP Preconfigured Systems (PCS) ... 38
  • 1.6 ... Summary ... 39
  • 2 ... The SAP Organizational Structure ... 41
  • 2.1 ... Introduction to Organizational Structures ... 41
  • 2.1.1 ... Client/Company ... 43
  • 2.1.2 ... Company Code ... 43
  • 2.1.3 ... Plant ... 44
  • 2.1.4 ... Storage Location ... 44
  • 2.1.5 ... Purchasing Organization ... 44
  • 2.1.6 ... Purchasing Group ... 44
  • 2.2 ... Business Scenarios and Organizational Structure ... 45
  • 2.2.1 ... Scenario 1: Plant-Specific Purchasing ... 45
  • 2.2.2 ... Scenario 2: Cross-Plant Purchasing ... 46
  • 2.2.3 ... Scenario 3: Cross-Company Code/Corporate Group-Wide Purchasing ... 47
  • 2.2.4 ... Scenario 4: Reference Purchasing Organization ... 48
  • 2.2.5 ... Scenario 5: Standard Purchasing Organization ... 49
  • 2.3 ... Setting Up Organizational Structures in an SAP System ... 49
  • 2.3.1 ... Creating Company Codes ... 49
  • 2.3.2 ... Defining Valuation Levels ... 51
  • 2.3.3 ... Creating Plants ... 51
  • 2.3.4 ... Assigning Plants to Company Codes ... 54
  • 2.3.5 ... Creating Storage Locations for Plants ... 55
  • 2.3.6 ... Creating Purchasing Organizations ... 57
  • 2.3.7 ... Assigning Purchasing Organizations to Company Codes and Plants ... 57
  • 2.3.8 ... Assigning Standard Purchasing Organizations to Plants ... 60
  • 2.3.9 ... Assigning Purchasing Organizations to Reference Purchase Organizations ... 60
  • 2.3.10 ... Creating Purchase Groups ... 61
  • 2.4 ... Summary ... 62
  • 3 ... Master Data ... 63
  • 3.1 ... Vendor Master Records ... 64
  • 3.1.1 ... Vendor Account Group ... 65
  • 3.1.2 ... Field Selection ... 67
  • 3.1.3 ... Number Interval ... 69
  • 3.1.4 ... Vendor Status (One-Time Vendor) ... 71
  • 3.1.5 ... Reconciliation Accounts for Vendor Master Records ... 72
  • 3.1.6 ... Partner Schemas ... 73
  • 3.2 ... Material Master Records ... 78
  • 3.2.1 ... Main Attributes ... 82
  • 3.2.2 ... Configuring a New Material Type ... 83
  • 3.2.3 ... Defining a Number Range for a Material Type ... 86
  • 3.2.4 ... Defining Field Selections ... 88
  • 3.2.5 ... Defining Material Groups ... 89
  • 3.3 ... Purchasing Info Records ... 90
  • 3.3.1 ... Structure ... 91
  • 3.3.2 ... Creating an Info Record ... 94
  • 3.3.3 ... Configuration ... 95
  • 3.4 ... Source List ... 96
  • 3.4.1 ... Structure ... 96
  • 3.4.2 ... Creating the Source List ... 97
  • 3.4.3 ... Configuration ... 98
  • 3.5 ... Quota Arrangement ... 98
  • 3.5.1 ... Elements ... 99
  • 3.5.2 ... Master Data and Configuration ... 103
  • 3.6 ... Catalogs in SAP ERP ... 105
  • 3.7 ... Summary ... 106
  • 4 ... Procurement Processes ... 107
  • 4.1 ... Item Category ... 108
  • 4.2 ... Procure to Pay ... 110
  • 4.2.1 ... Business Scenario ... 111
  • 4.2.2 ... P2P Documents ... 111
  • 4.3 ... Direct Material Procurement ... 117
  • 4.3.1 ... Business Scenario ... 117
  • 4.3.2 ... Process Steps ... 118
  • 4.3.3 ... Configuration Steps ... 119
  • 4.4 ... Indirect Material Procurement ... 119
  • 4.4.1 ... Business Scenario ... 120
  • 4.4.2 ... Process Steps ... 123
  • 4.4.3 ... Configuration Steps ... 124
  • 4.5 ... Blanket Purchase Orders for Consumable Materials ... 127
  • 4.5.1 ... Business Scenario ... 128
  • 4.5.2 ... Process Steps ... 129
  • 4.5.3 ... Configuration Steps ... 130
  • 4.6 ... Service Procurement ... 130
  • 4.6.1 ... Business Scenario ... 131
  • 4.6.2 ... Service Master Record ... 131
  • 4.6.3 ... Documents and Price Conditions in Service Procurement ... 132
  • 4.6.4 ... Process Steps ... 134
  • 4.6.5 ... Configuration Steps ... 136
  • 4.7 ... Consignment Procurement ... 141
  • 4.7.1 ... Business Scenario ... 141
  • 4.7.2 ... Process Steps ... 143
  • 4.7.3 ... Configuration Steps ... 146
  • 4.8 ... Subcontract Procurement ... 147
  • 4.8.1 ... Business Scenario ... 147
  • 4.8.2 ... Process Steps ... 150
  • 4.8.3 ... Configuration Steps ... 154
  • 4.8.4 ... Enhancements in Subcontracting Since SAP ERP 6.0 EHP4 ... 156
  • 4.8.5 ... New Transactions in Subcontracting ... 157
  • 4.8.6 ... Two-Step Stock Transfer and Subcontracting Cockpit ... 158
  • 4.8.7 ... Stock Transfer Direct to Subcontractor ... 161
  • 4.9 ... Third-Party Procurement ... 163
  • 4.9.1 ... Business Scenario ... 163
  • 4.9.2 ... Process Steps ... 164
  • 4.9.3 ... Configuration Steps ... 166
  • 4.10 ... Outline Agreements ... 166
  • 4.10.1 ... Contract Agreements ... 167
  • 4.10.2 ... Invoices for Contracts ... 172
  • 4.10.3 ... Scheduling Agreements ... 174
  • 4.11 ... Stock Transfer ... 178
  • 4.11.1 ... Business Scenario ... 178
  • 4.11.2 ... One-Step Stock Transfer ... 179
  • 4.11.3 ... Two-Step Stock Transfer ... 181
  • 4.11.4 ... Stock Transport Orders ... 182
  • 4.11.5 ... Stock Transfer from One Company Code Plant to Another Company Code Plant ... 183
  • 4.12 ... Intercompany Purchases ... 184
  • 4.12.1 ... Business Scenario ... 184
  • 4.12.2 ... Stock Transport Order with Delivery via Shipping ... 185
  • 4.12.3 ... Stock Transport Order with Delivery and Billing Document/Invoice ... 186
  • 4.12.4 ... Configuration Steps ... 187
  • 4.13 ... Summary ... 191
  • 5 ... Inventory Management Processes ... 193
  • 5.1 ... Movement Types ... 195
  • 5.1.1 ... Business Scenario ... 195
  • 5.1.2 ... Configuration Steps ... 196
  • 5.2 ... Unit of Measurement for Goods Movement ... 199
  • 5.3 ... Inbound and Outbound Processes ... 202
  • 5.3.1 ... Inbound/Outbound Process Definitions ... 203
  • 5.3.2 ... Goods Movement (Transaction MIGO) ... 204
  • 5.3.3 ... Goods Movement with and without Reference ... 206
  • 5.3.4 ... Inventory Management Configurations ... 207
  • 5.4 ... Stock Types in Inventory Management ... 212
  • 5.4.1 ... Standard Stock Types ... 213
  • 5.4.2 ... Goods Receipt Blocked Stock ... 216
  • 5.4.3 ... Special Stock Types ... 218
  • 5.5 ... Physical Inventory Management Processes ... 220
  • 5.5.1 ... Process Steps ... 221
  • 5.5.2 ... Cycle Counting Method ... 223
  • 5.6 ... Vendor Return Process ... 227
  • 5.6.1 ... Return without Return Purchase Order ... 227
  • 5.6.2 ... Return with Return Purchase Order ... 230
  • 5.6.3 ... Return with Return Purchase Order and Outbound Delivery ... 232
  • 5.7 ... Cancellation of Material Document ... 234
  • 5.8 ... Summary ... 236
  • 6 ... Invoice Verification ... 237
  • 6.1 ... Basics of Invoice Verification ... 239
  • 6.2 ... PO-Based Invoice Verification ... 242
  • 6.3 ... GR-Based Invoice Verification ... 242
  • 6.4 ... Invoices for Account-Assigned Purchase Orders ... 243
  • 6.4.1 ... Account Postings ... 244
  • 6.4.2 ... Process Steps ... 245
  • 6.5 ... Invoices for Blanket Purchase Orders ... 246
  • 6.6 ... Evaluated Receipt Settlements ... 247
  • 6.6.1 ... Business Scenario ... 247
  • 6.6.2 ... Prerequisites in Master Data ... 248
  • 6.6.3 ... Process Steps ... 250
  • 6.7 ... Invoicing Plans ... 252
  • 6.7.1 ... Business Scenario ... 252
  • 6.7.2 ... Periodic Invoicing Plan ... 252
  • 6.7.3 ... Partial Invoicing Plan ... 253
  • 6.7.4 ... Customization ... 254
  • 6.7.5 ... Process Steps ... 258
  • 6.8 ... Subsequent Debit/Credit ... 259
  • 6.8.1 ... Business Scenario ... 260
  • 6.8.2 ... Account Postings ... 260
  • 6.8.3 ... Process Steps ... 262
  • 6.9 ... Credit Memos and Reversals ... 262
  • 6.9.1 ... Business Scenario ... 262
  • 6.9.2 ... Process Steps ... 264
  • 6.10 ... Invoice Verification in Background Processing ... 264
  • 6.10.1 ... Business Scenario ... 265
  • 6.10.2 ... Process Steps ... 265
  • 6.11 ... Invoice Reductions ... 267
  • 6.11.1 ... Business Scenario ... 267
  • 6.11.2 ... Account Posting ... 269
  • 6.11.3 ... Process Steps ... 269
  • 6.11.4 ... Customization Steps for Invoices with Reduction ... 270
  • 6.12 ... Invoices with Variances ... 272
  • 6.12.1 ... Business Scenario ... 272
  • 6.12.2 ... Account Posting ... 272
  • 6.12.3 ... Process Steps ... 274
  • 6.12.4 ... Configuration Steps ... 275
  • 6.13 ... Taxes in Invoice Verification ... 276
  • 6.13.1 ... Entering Tax Data in an Invoice ... 277
  • 6.13.2 ... Configuration Steps ... 278
  • 6.14 ... Discounts in Invoice Verification ... 278
  • 6.14.1 ... Account Postings ... 279
  • 6.14.2 ... Configuration of Gross/Net Posting ... 281
  • 6.14.3 ... Configuration of Payment Terms ... 281
  • 6.15 ... Invoice Blocking ... 282
  • 6.15.1 ... Business Scenario ... 282
  • 6.15.2 ... Quantity Variance ... 283
  • 6.15.3 ... Price Variance ... 284
  • 6.15.4 ... Stochastic Blocking ... 286
  • 6.15.5 ... Manual Blocking ... 288
  • 6.15.6 ... Tolerances ... 289
  • 6.15.7 ... Releasing Blocked Invoices ... 291
  • 6.16 ... GR/IR Account Maintenance ... 293
  • 6.16.1 ... Account Posting ... 294
  • 6.16.2 ... Process Steps ... 294
  • 6.17 ... Duplicate Invoice Check ... 295
  • 6.18 ... Invoices for POs with Down Payments ... 296
  • 6.18.1 ... Business Scenario ... 296
  • 6.18.2 ... Process Steps ... 297
  • 6.18.3 ... Activate Down Payment in Purchasing ... 304
  • 6.19 ... Invoices for POs with Retention Money ... 305
  • 6.19.1 ... Business Scenario ... 305
  • 6.19.2 ... Process Steps ... 307
  • 6.19.3 ... Customizing Steps ... 309
  • 6.20 ... Summary ... 312
  • 7 ... Inventory Valuation ... 313
  • 7.1 ... Financial Accounting and Controlling Overview ... 313
  • 7.1.1 ... Financial Accounting ... 313
  • 7.1.2 ... Management Accounting ... 315
  • 7.2 ... Valuation Area ... 316
  • 7.3 ... Valuation Methods: Moving Average Price and Standard Price ... 318
  • 7.3.1 ... Moving Average Price “V” ... 319
  • 7.3.2 ... Standard Price “S” ... 320
  • 7.3.3 ... Configuration Steps ... 321
  • 7.3.4 ... Process Steps ... 322
  • 7.4 ... Material Price Changes ... 323
  • 7.4.1 ... Business Scenario ... 323
  • 7.4.2 ... Process Steps ... 328
  • 7.4.3 ... Configuration Steps for Price Changes in the Previous Period/Year ... 328
  • 7.5 ... Split Valuation ... 329
  • 7.5.1 ... Business Scenario ... 329
  • 7.5.2 ... Configuration Steps ... 331
  • 7.5.3 ... Process Steps ... 335
  • 7.6 ... Summary ... 338
  • 8 ... Key Configurations in Materials Management in SAP ... 339
  • 8.1 ... Release Strategy ... 340
  • 8.1.1 ... Business Scenario ... 340
  • 8.1.2 ... Basic Concepts of Release Strategy ... 341
  • 8.1.3 ... Configuration Steps for Release Procedure without Classification ... 343
  • 8.1.4 ... Configuration Steps for the Release Procedure with Classification ... 348
  • 8.1.5 ... Process Steps ... 355
  • 8.2 ... Pricing Procedure ... 357
  • 8.2.1 ... Business Scenario ... 357
  • 8.2.2 ... Process Steps ... 358
  • 8.2.3 ... Configuration Steps ... 359
  • 8.3 ... Automatic Account Determination ... 368
  • 8.3.1 ... Business Scenario ... 368
  • 8.3.2 ... Configuration with the Automatic Account Determination Wizard ... 370
  • 8.3.3 ... Configuration without the Automatic Account Determination Wizard ... 370
  • 8.3.4 ... Process Steps ... 376
  • 8.4 ... Document Type ... 379
  • 8.4.1 ... Business Scenario ... 380
  • 8.4.2 ... Configuration Steps ... 381
  • 8.4.3 ... Process Steps ... 383
  • 8.5 ... Version Management ... 383
  • 8.5.1 ... Business Scenario ... 384
  • 8.5.2 ... Configuration Steps ... 385
  • 8.5.3 ... Process Steps ... 389
  • 8.6 ... Message Determination ... 389
  • 8.6.1 ... Business Scenario ... 390
  • 8.6.2 ... How Message Determination Works ... 391
  • 8.6.3 ... Configuration Steps ... 392
  • 8.6.4 ... Process Steps ... 397
  • 8.7 ... Serial Numbers in Purchasing ... 398
  • 8.7.1 ... Configuration Steps ... 400
  • 8.7.2 ... Process Steps ... 403
  • 8.8 ... Public Templates in Purchase Orders and Requisitions ... 405
  • 8.8.1 ... Configuration Steps ... 406
  • 8.8.2 ... Process Steps ... 406
  • 8.9 ... Blocking and Unblocking Purchase Orders ... 408
  • 8.9.1 ... Customizing Steps ... 408
  • 8.9.2 ... Process Step ... 409
  • 8.10 ... Summary ... 410
  • 9 ... Material Classification ... 411
  • 9.1 ... Introduction to Material Classification ... 411
  • 9.2 ... Key Terms of the Classification System ... 414
  • 9.3 ... Configuration Steps ... 415
  • 9.3.1 ... Step 1: Define Characteristics ... 416
  • 9.3.2 ... Step 2: Define Class ... 418
  • 9.3.3 ... Step 3: Assign Objects to Classes ... 419
  • 9.4 ... Summary ... 420
  • 10 ... Batch Management ... 421
  • 10.1 ... Master Data in Batch Management ... 423
  • 10.1.1 ... Activate Batch Management in the Material Master ... 423
  • 10.1.2 ... Creating and Managing the Batch Master Record ... 425
  • 10.1.3 ... Batch Classification ... 428
  • 10.2 ... Process Steps ... 428
  • 10.2.1 ... Define Characteristics ... 429
  • 10.2.2 ... Define Class ... 431
  • 10.2.3 ... Create Material Master ... 432
  • 10.2.4 ... Create Batch Master ... 433
  • 10.2.5 ... Post Goods Receipt ... 435
  • 10.2.6 ... Stock Overview ... 436
  • 10.2.7 ... Batch Information Cockpit ... 437
  • 10.3 ... Configuration Steps ... 438
  • 10.3.1 ... Define the Batch Level ... 439
  • 10.3.2 ... Batch Number Assignment ... 441
  • 10.3.3 ... Creation of New Batches ... 443
  • 10.3.4 ... Batch Determination ... 444
  • 10.4 ... Summary ... 451
  • 11 ... Material Requirements Planning ... 453
  • 11.1 ... Introduction to MRP ... 454
  • 11.2 ... Planning Procedures in MRP ... 456
  • 11.3 ... Prerequisites ... 457
  • 11.3.1 ... Configuration Settings ... 457
  • 11.3.2 ... MRP Groups ... 460
  • 11.3.3 ... MRP Data in the Material Master ... 462
  • 11.3.4 ... MRP Profile ... 463
  • 11.4 ... Planning Levels (MRP Areas) ... 465
  • 11.5 ... Planning Procedures in Consumption-Based Planning ... 467
  • 11.5.1 ... MRP Type ... 467
  • 11.5.2 ... Lot Size Calculation ... 469
  • 11.5.3 ... Planning Procedure Type 1: Reorder Point Planning ... 471
  • 11.5.4 ... Planning Procedure Type 2: Forecast-Based Planning ... 475
  • 11.5.5 ... Forecast Models ... 477
  • 11.5.6 ... Planning Procedure Type 3: Time-Phased Planning ... 480
  • 11.6 ... Planning Run ... 483
  • 11.6.1 ... Planning File ... 483
  • 11.6.2 ... Planning Horizon ... 485
  • 11.6.3 ... Control Parameters for the Planning Run ... 485
  • 11.6.4 ... Planning Execution ... 488
  • 11.7 ... Planning Evaluations ... 488
  • 11.7.1 ... MRP List and Stock/Requirements List ... 489
  • 11.7.2 ... Navigation Profile ... 491
  • 11.7.3 ... Exception Messages ... 492
  • 11.8 ... Summary ... 493
  • 12 ... Enhancements in Materials Management ... 495
  • 12.1 ... System Architecture ... 495
  • 12.2 ... Introduction to Development Objects ... 497
  • 12.3 ... Reports ... 498
  • 12.4 ... Interface ... 503
  • 12.4.1 ... Technical Terminology—Synchronous and Asynchronous Communications ... 505
  • 12.4.2 ... Classical SAP Technologies (ABAP) ... 506
  • 12.4.3 ... Example ... 512
  • 12.5 ... Conversion ... 512
  • 12.6 ... Enhancements ... 514
  • 12.6.1 ... BAdIs ... 515
  • 12.6.2 ... Example ... 516
  • 12.7 ... Forms ... 516
  • 12.8 ... Workflow ... 518
  • 12.9 ... Summary ... 519
  • 13 ... Conclusion ... 521
  • ... Appendices ... 525
  • A ... Important Transaction Codes ... 527
  • A.1 ... Material Master and Service Master ... 527
  • A.2 ... Vendor Master ... 527
  • A.3 ... Other Master Records ... 528
  • A.4 ... Inventory Management ... 528
  • A.5 ... Materials Requirement Planning (MRP) ... 529
  • A.6 ... Physical Inventory ... 530
  • A.7 ... Purchasing and Invoicing Transactions ... 530
  • A.8 ... ALE/IDoc Transactions ... 532
  • B ... Important Tables ... 535
  • B.1 ... Material Master Tables ... 535
  • B.2 ... Other Important Tables ... 535
  • C ... BAdIs ... 537
  • D ... The Author ... 541
  • ... Index ... 543